Amazon’s unmanned vehicle delivery is to enhance the competitiveness among the eCommerce service toward customer. By taking the drone design, testing, negotiation and producing, Amazon intends to provide an immediate delivery services to 50 miles’ vicinity of Amazon’s U.S. fulfillment centers. The drone delivery is being put together to show the community and its surrounding neighbors the convenience, efficient and human resource saving and how air prime will assist in bettering human lifestyle. This project will enlarge Amazon’s new audience markets and bring tremendous competition advantage over other internet based retailer, such as e-Bay, and multinational retailer, such as Walmart. Also unmanned vehicle delivery will increase the sale amount and bring higher satisfactory for customers. Absolutely, it will make great profit for Amazon.com, Inc. Amazon also wants to use this delivery method to reach its goal that change people’s lifestyle and let customer know how the unmanned vehicle delivery will accommodate their life requirements.
1.2. Product scope description
1.2.1. Project Objective
To launch a speedy unmanned vehicle delivery and create a new lifestyle for customer’s online shopping in 4 years at a cost not to exceed $ 30 million. To promote Amazon’s fast delivery service.
- Delivery MannerUnmanned vehicle delivery will take fulfillment center-to-vicinity of 50 miles
- Parcel Delivery Specifics
Private Delivery: Drone will delivery package weighing 5 ponds or less to private landing pads, size 30cm×40cm, located within 25 miles of a fulfillment center within a maximum delivery time of 30 minutes
Public Delivery: Drone will delivery package weighing 5 ponds or less to public landing pads, located within 50 miles of fulfillment centers within a maximum 60 minutes and use courier to deliver the package to customer within a maximum 60 minutes.
- Drone specifics:
Large drone: drone will be designed to fly under 400 feet with a speed at 70 miles/hour and weighted up to 55 ponds once a time between fulfillment center and fulfillment center.
Small Drone: small drone will be designed to fly under 400 feet with a speed at 50 miles/hour and weighted up to 5 ponds once a time flying between fulfillment center and landing pads.
- Fulfillment center and public landing pads distribution:
Each Amazon’s fulfillment centers will build at least 4 public landing pads according to the order frequency in that area within 50 miles. Each large size city will have at least three fulfillment centers around 100 miles and each medium city will have at least two fulfillment centers around 150 miles.
- Drone safety
Drone will be built with water protected, high temperature resistant and windy break materials and use multiple redundancies, such as parachute assembly and cameras, as well as sophisticated “sense and avoid” technology to make sure the safety priority. Also, different drone will be designed to suit for different environment.
1.3. Acceptance criteria
- Satisfy air prime customers, stakeholder and Amazon’s online shopping.
- design and materials of drone meet all kinds of weather condition
- Sensor of private landing pad and drone meet the requirement of precise localization and safety landing.
- Complete landing sites construction within $2.5 million and 2 years.
- Launch drone within 2 years
- Complete design, develop, test and produce of drone within $10 million.
- Accept the authority approval from the Federal Aviation Administration
- Meet project deadline of 4 years’ time frame
- Each package delivery within 30-120 minutes.
- Speed of large drone meets 70 mph.
- Speed of small drone meets 50 mph.
- Deliverables to customers – All Prime customers residing in a single family. House will receive 1 private landing pad, sized 30cm×40cm for drone deliveries. All Prime customers residing in apartment buildings may need to share 1 private landing pad, sized 2m×3m, with other Prime customers in the same apartment building.
- Deliverables to Amazon – Drone Company will be shipping 100 drones, model#21323, to each Amazon fulfillment center.
- Deliverables to engineer team- All engineering team will be responsible for realizing drone security and private program, drone development, software development, hardware development and testing.
- Deliverables to construction team- All construction engineer and team will be building 100 public landing pad, size 7m×8m, 5 ground control stations and maintenance program
- Deliverables to research team- All research scientists, market analyzers and team will be responsible for market assessment, research, delivery rule planning and emergency solution program.
- Deliverables to manager team- All managers will be responsible for project plan, product plan, program plan, project summary, project report and global drone delivery development and close.
Deliverable lists for build WBS
- Market assessment
- Delivery rule planning
- Drone security and private program
- Drone development
- Landing site construction
- Software development
- Hardware development
- Sensor pad development
- Monitoring Plan
- Ground control station construction
- Emergency solution program
- Maintenance program
- Feedback research
- Project summary
- Global drone delivery development
1.5. Project Exclusions
- Drone delivery will not provide 30 mins’ delivery to customer who has not a privacy landing pad.
- Drone delivery will not go to the private landing area less than 2m×3m.
- Drone will not delivery the package that weights over 5 ponds and larger than 0.44m×0.44m×0.1m.
- Air prime will not delivery the package in an extreme weather.
- Air prime will not delivery over twenty-five miles of its fulfillment centers.
- Air prime will not provide midnight service for public air prime.
- Monitoring plan must finish before ground control station construction.
- Emergency solution must launch concurrent with monitoring plan.
- Advertisement of Air prime must continually advertise during the project.
- The schedule of the project is 4 years. If the completion of the project exceeds 4 years, each additional required year to completion will cost an additional $700K.
- The budget cannot over $30 million. If the cost exceeds the maximum budget, then major features will need to be cut to keep the budget within the limit.
- The drone must meet the safety requirement and testing. If the test doesn’t meet the requirement, each drone should be remolded within the extra 3 months.
- Research and plan must finish before drone development. If research and plan exceed the baseline deadline, each delay day to dependencies tasks will cost an additional $2,000.
- The drone launch must occur on Dec.2019. If the launch date exceeds Dec.31, 2019, each additional required month to launch will cost an additional $10K.
- Testing must show in the whole process of drone development. If required test missed during the drone development, the development team should suspend the current process to take a test.
- Emergency responses and emergency treatment devices of drone must complete before August, 2016. If the completion of emergency solution and devices exceeds the August, 2016, the drone delivery test has to be tested in the southern test center in Sep, 2016. Each test will cost an additional $2K.
- Must have a workable delivery rule before software development. If delivery rule exceeds the baseline deadline, the extension day to start software development will cost an additional $2k
- Landing site construction must finish 2 months before monitoring center construction completion. If the completion of public landing site exceeds the baseline deadline, the main procedure of construction will need to cut to keep the schedule within the limit.
- Global drone development must occur after the first successful drone delivery. If the global drone development occurs before first successful delivery, the cost of development in advance will not be compensated.
- All staffs in all departments must be trained and fully understand the whole project. If they are not familiar with the project and tasks after training, they should be fired and replaced.
- To start the project by January 1st, 2015, it is assumed that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has the full support to the project.
- To collect the investment from vendors by May, 2015, it is assumed that all vendors support the project and sponsor the project.
- To launch the project by December 31st, 2019, it is assume that customers are popular with the drone delivery.
- To test the drone by March, 2016, it is assume that FAA provides the privacy protections for the drone delivery test.
- To develop the drone by September 4th, 2015, it is assumed that all physics researches for drone are matured.
- To conduct the project from January 1st, 2015, it is assume that all the phases and process of project, and communication and cooperation of teamwork always goes well.
2.1 Quality expectations of the project
- To ensure delivery of package within a maximum time of 30 minutes and a maximum distance of 25 miles from fulfillment center each small drone must be able to travel at a constant speed of 50 mph from the fulfillment center to the customer site.
- To ensure delivery of package within a maximum time of 90 minutes and maximum distance of 100 miles, each large drone must be able to travel at a constant speed of 70 mph from fulfillment center to fulfillment center.
- To maximize the efficient use of battery power and only require one battery charge per round trip delivery, the combined weight of the drone and package must not exceed 15 ponds. Since the maximum weight of package will be 5 ponds then the weight of the drone must not exceed 10 ponds.
- To maximize the safety of delivery, the sensor-and-avoid devices must meet zero failure of obstacle avoidance every time. The combined weight of sensor-and-avoid device must not exceed 2 ponds.
- To maximize the precise position of delivery, the GPS of drone must be able to precise point positioning at centimeter to decimeter level. The landing pad must convey the strong inductive magnetic and maintain forever.
- To ensure a stable flight and monitoring of drone, the internet connection devices and net must be able to connecting all the time. The Internet must be able to keep a private network.
- To ensure environmental-friendly and user friendly of all landing pad, all the materials of construction should be recycled and sustainable used. The design for private landing pad should within 30cm×40cm and must not exceed 1 pond. Each private landing pad is collapsible and long-term use.
2.2. Requirements of clients/funders
- To ensure unobstructed delivery of package, each client must install the landing pad on a level area of ground that has 50 feet of circular clearance all around it and there must not be any suspended wires of cables within a half-mile of the landing pad.
- To get the best cooperation for delivery of package, a delivery rule and delay policy must be agreed by each client.
- To ensure the privacy for the project, the confidentiality agreement must be established with drone vendors and manufactures.
- To get the best quality for meeting delivery quality requirements, a two-year contract must be established with the drone manufactures.
- To get the priority of flight, the Federal Aviation Administration must reach an agreement with Amazon.com, Inc.
2.3. Project delivery activities
|Make wireframe for drone||Engineering team,Manufacturing[67%],Mechanical engineer[67%],Principal reliability engineer[67%]|
|Design different types of drone||Image scientist ,Engineering team,Principal reliability engineer|
|Drone design completed||Engineering team,Product manager, Security science group|
|Create sensor-and-avoid||Engineering team,Senior hardware system engineer, Principal reliability engineer,|
|Create Precise GPS positioning||Hardware development team,Security science group|
|Create special communication devices||Hardware development engineer, Hardware development team|
|Build power engineer||Engineering team, Hardware development engineer|
|Devices making completed|
|Make special external materials||Hardware development team,Manufacturing|
|Build the prototype||Engineering team Manufacturing|
|Check the integrate structure||Test engineer|
|Revise the prototype||Engineering team,Manufacturing[67%],Mechanical engineer[67%],Principal reliability engineer[67%]|
2.4. Required project resources
- 1 project managers
- 5 development mangers
- 3 program managers
- 2 project coordinator
- 3 program coordinator
- 3 human resources
- 20 software engineers
- 8 electrical engineers
- 6 mechanical engineers
- 3 manufacturing engineers
- 3 aerospace engineers
- 2 physics engineers.
- 2 construction engineers
- 2 production engineers
- 1 architecture engineer
- 1 system engineer
- 2 research scientists
- 1 physicist
- 1 graphic scientist
- 6 software testers
- 12 hardware testers
- 5 aviation testers
- 45 development computers
- 1000 30cm×40cm private landing pad
- 100 7m ×8m public landing pad.
- 150 drones
- 10 conference rooms
- 5 laboratory
- 2 seminar room
2.5. Monitoring & Reporting procedures
- Run a series of tests on each completed drone, in an adequately sized test facility, before it is deployed for delivery to validate proper operating functionality.
- Run an agile project management methodology on each software development, in an adequate iterative procedure to test the program, before it is deployed for delivering a successful order, information interaction and drop-off functionality.
- Run an a serious of back-up systems on each completed software, to an adequate multi-destination terminal, such as cloud backup, server backup and local backup.
- Run an flight control system on each software and hardware for drone flight, in an robustness features to mitigate systematic failure by dual monitored channel architecture, before it is deployed for drone flight test to validate and stable flight functionality
- Keep a running detailed log for each drone in use to track delivery success. If too many issues occur, discontinue using that drone and return it to maintenance for repair/disposal.
- Test process for each drone will be recorded in a running status report for that type of drone. In additional the process and procedures for each test will be recorded. These results will be reported to engineering team weekly at the drone development status update meeting.
- Project process for each phase will be recorded in a running status report for each department. In additional the over-schedule, over budget and mitigation procedures will be recorded. These results will be reported to manager team weekly at the team status update meeting.
- Test results for each completed drone will be recorded in a running status report for that drone. In additional the running log details for each delivery that drone makes will be recorded. These results will be reported to the management team weekly at the status update meeting.
- Monitoring results for each drone delivery will be recorded in a running monitoring report for that drone. In additional the monitoring data will be recorded. These results will be reported to ground control and engineering team twice a month at the general report meeting.
2.6. Defect procedures
- All defects in manufacturing and programming will be recorded using the Defect Track software application. The engineering manager is responsible for continuous monitoring of these defects and assigning to the appropriate teams for fix
- All defects in the ground control will be recorded using data monitoring software application. The ground controllers are responsible for continuous monitoring of theses defects and report the gross errors to manager to improve and fix it.
- All defects in the project process must compare with the baseline and scope statement using Microsoft project software. The project manager is responsible for continuously monitoring and controlling these defects and assigning to appropriate department for fix.
- All defects in the programming, manufacturing, operating and testing will be prioritized using the EMV methodology. Manager group is responsible for continuous prioritizing those defects and dealing with the prioritized defects by appropriate team at first.
Parts of Effort for Amazon Unmanned Vehicle delivery project
Number of members
|Manager||Project manager||– Managing a project from scoping requirements through actual launch.
– Lead and control the processes and implementation of initiation, planning, execution, monitoring& controlling and close in the Amazon unmanned vehicle delivery project.
– Make sure the Agile, scrum methodology apply well in the software and hardware development.
– Ability to communicate effectively with both technical and non-technical individuals.
– Track record for being detail-oriented to self-motivate and follow-through on projects
|Manager||Senior software development manager||– Responsible for building complex software/hardware mission-critical systems that have been successfully delivered to customers at scale
– Managing with real-time and embedded systems
– Responsible for communicating with customers, technical, regulatory, business teams and management to collect requirements, describe product features, and technical designs.
|Manager||Program manager||– Managing an iterative fast-paced programming environment.
– Responsible for driving innovation, applying state-of-the-art technologies to solve extreme-scale challenges.
– Working with a team of top-notch developers and collaborating with our research teams.
|Manager||Operations manager||– Responsible for action, achieving results and driving performance through efficiency and process improvement.
– Managing, detailing and establishing root cause and extracting and analyzing data.
– Problem-solving and analytical capability to cope with drone problems.
|Coordinator||Program Coordinator||– Manage collection of project-specific data
– Manage day-to-day operations of the specific projects including logistics, scheduling, resource/equipment planning, staffing
– Address any technical questions from users and develop solutions that reduce the number of inquiries
|Engineer||Technical engineering technician||– Responsible for performing component, sub-assembly and aircraft level testing of prototype and production.
– Building and maintaining test equipment, test fixtures, and ground station equipment.
– Resolving subsystem and vehicle configuration issues.
– Operating and maintaining automated test equipment using software languages, analyze test results and develop test reports.
|Engineer||Senior hardware system engineer||– Responsible for a technical lead designing hardware systems/products
– Designing avionics systems and doing end-to-end system debug repairing.
– Shipping and maintaining a complex product
– Working with mathematical/Statistical/Physics fundamentals
– Having strong analog, digital, and high-speed circuit design – including simulation and signal integrity.
|Engineer||Software development engineer||– Responsible for hardware/software integration and real time communication systems.
– Dealing with multiple programming languages including object-oriented languages such as Java or C++
– Communicating with end users, technical & business teams and management to collect requirements, describe product features, and technical designs.
|Engineer||Ground support engineer||– Monitoring vehicle systems, parameters and orientation during test and operational flights.
– Planning, executing, monitoring and analyzing vehicle missions
– Responsible for Performing preflight, in flight and post flight checks and procedures
|Scientist||Research scientist||– Responsible for data structures, algorithms and complexity analysis
– Converting research code to optimized processing code.
– Developing novel solutions using a combination of technologies based on engineering requirements.
– Direct involving in computer vision solutions shipped in a commercial product
|Quality Control||Software tester||– Monitoring applications and software systems
– Performance testing, functional testing and scalability testing.
– Reviewing documentation and working towards departmental and project deadlines
– designing tests to mitigate risk
|Engineer||construction engineering||– Inspecting and reviewing projects to monitor compliance with building and safety codes, and other regulations.
– Developing and implementing quality control programs.
– Planning, organizing, and direct activities concerned with the construction and maintenance of structures, facilities, and systems.
Precise GPS point positioning
Automation location technology
Cloud data processing and safe technology
Automation control system
Automation user interactive system
Remote control technology
SLA-driven operations technology
|GPS positioning data misleading||Incorrect GPS positioning causing the drone cannot go to the correct address of customer.||5||3||· Make an accurate GPS positioning pad for every private landing pad user. Update the precise GPS location and reliable positioning system for each public user.|
|Hacker invades the drones and stolen the user’s address information and steal the package.||5||2||· Strengthen research on the security information system of drone and users’ private information protection.
· Build a solution program for hacker invading.
|Sensor-and-avoid malfunction||The sensor-and-avoid of drone cannot sense the obstacles causing aircraft crash||5||3||· Build a integrated sensor-and-avoid system for drone
· Provide several emergency situation solution
· Create a radar and sound wave replacement system once the sensor-and-avoid malfunction
|Personal Injury||Air crash of drone hits pedestrians and causes personal injury||5||3||· Create a parachute rescue system once the drone face air crash
· Make injury indemnity clause
|Delivery overtime||Delivery of drone doesn’t arrive at destination within 30-90 minutes based on different users.||4||4||· Make clause for delivery overtime
· Every user must agree with this clause before applying the unmanned vehicle delivery
· Customer can track the progress, time and flight situation of drone
|Running down of battery in drone||Long-distance flying runs down the battery of drone||4||2||· Make standby battery for drone
· Create a automatic charger equipment
|Communication system broken||Long-distance working and bad weather distraction cause the drone communication system broken||4||2||· Make a water-protect and windbreak protection for communication devices
· Create a communication replacement devices
|Package is damaged in the delivery process/Goods damage||Bad weather condition in the delivery process causing the package incomplete.||4||2||· Use the shock resist for pack
· Create water protect material for package storage case
· Make a close sealing ring for goods exporting and entrance.
|Drone is shot||Drone is shot by people||5||3||· Create alert system for reporting
· Make emergency solution for this situation
· Create a special strike prevent material for drone
|Operational system error||Operational system of drone is out of control causing air crash||5||3||· Regularly maintain the operational system
· Timely update operational system
|Bug in cloud database||Cloud database occurs bug and data cannot transmission||4||3||· Scheduled maintenance of the database
· Update the database
· Database grooming
· Regularly update user information
· Database backup
|Ground control system error||Ground control system cannot monitor the flight situation of drone and cannot make timely emergency solution for aircraft.||5||2||· Scheduled check the ground control system
· Create advanced ground control system
· Regularly upgrade control system
|Internet connection interruption||The internet connection of drone is interrupted. Customer cannot get the update flight information.||5||4||· Create a reliable and good connectable internet connection system
· Work with other internet servers
· Made emergency solution for the internet disconnection
Create Part of MS Project Chart
|WBS||Task Name||Duration||Resource Names||Description|
|1||Market assessment||30 days|
|3||Delivery rule planning||20 days|
|4||Drone security and private program||1 Month|
|5||Drone development||8 months||Drone development, including design to launch|
|5.1||Drone Design||20 days||Design the drone|
|5.1.1||Make wireframe for drone||20 days||Engineering team,Manufacturing[67%],Mechanical engineer[67%],Principal reliability engineer[67%]||Build the blueprint and wireframe of drone by referring engineering design principle and basic outline of drone|
|5.1.2||Design different types of drone||20 days||Image scientist ,Engineering team,Principal reliability engineer||Based on different weather condition, engineering team should create different types of drone to deal with worse weather|
|5.1.3||Drone design completed||0 days|
|5.2||Devices making||50 days|
|5.2.1||Create sensor-and-avoid||50 days||Engineering team,Product manager, Security science group||Sensor-and-avoid devices are installed in the drone to sense the obstacles in the process of flight|
|5.2.2||Create Precise GPS positioning||2 months||Engineering team,Senior hardware system engineer||GPS is used for position the users’ address. The GPS positioning system should not be disturbed by other signals.|
|5.2.3||Create special communication devices||25 days||Hardware development team,Security science group||The communication devices are used for communicate with users and controller. This device should connect with an interactive platform.|
|5.2.4||Build power engineer||1 month||Hardware development engineer, Hardware development team||Power engineer is used for drive the drone and keep the power of drone|
|5.2.5||Devices making completed||0 days|
|5.3.1||Make special external materials||2 months||Principal reliability engineer, Engineering team||The external materials are used for protect the drone from raining, wet and hot temperature weather.|
|5.3.2||Build the prototype||2 months||Hardware development team,Manufacturing||Prototype is the basic model of drone. Engineering can use this prototype to test the basic property of drone|
|5.3.3||Check the integrate structure||15 days||Test engineer||Check process is to make sure the design of drone and flight situation.|
|5.3.4||Revise the prototype||15 days||Engineering team||Revision of prototype is to change the unreasonable design and structure after the checking|
|5.3.5||Prototype completed||0 days|
|5.4.1||Test the flight situation||10 days||Test engineering technician||Test the drone’s fighting situation, including speed, height, sensor-and-avoid, Internet connection, GPS positioning and communication devices.|
|5.4.2||Test the environmental stability||8 days||Test engineer||Test drone flight situation in the extreme weather condition, including rainy, windy, sunny, cloudy and foggy weather.|
|5.4.3||Test the duration of drone||8 days||Test engineering technician||Test the duration of drone making sure it can fly in a long time period. Test the emergency solution program.|
|5.4.4||Test the GPS positioning||10 days||Test engineer||Test the degree accuracy of drone when it search for users’ address|
|5.4.5||Test the sensor-and-avoid device||10 days||Test engineer||Test the obstacle-avoidance ability of sensor and the reaction of sensor. Also test the sensor emergency solution program|
|5.4.6||Test the Internet connection||6 days||Software development engineer, Test engineering technician||Make sure the Internet connection will not be disconnected during the flight and the signal will not be disrupted.|
|5.4.7||Retest||10 days||Test engineer||Retest the whole flight situation including the entire test.|
|5.4.8||Testing completed||0 days|
|5.5.1||Modify the drone design||5 days||Senior hardware system engineer, Senior security engineer||Slightly modify the design of drone after drone’s testing.|
|5.5.2||Modify prototype||10 days||Engineering team||Slightly modify the prototype based on the revised design.|
|5.5.3||Make sure the final type of drone||7 days||Product manager||After adjusting the structure, prototype and design of drone, product manager needs to make sure the final type of drone.|
|5.5.4||Retest the modified drone||10 days||Test engineer, Test engineering technician||After the final type of drone confirmation, the test group should retest the modified drone.|
|5.5.5||Modify completed||0 days|
|5.6.1||Produce the drone||3 months||Engineering team,Product manager||All the testing, modifying of drone have done. Product manager can arrange a production of drone|
|5.6.2||Launch the drone||1 month||Product manager, Project manager||Launch the drone and promulgate it.|
|5.6.3||Drone development completed||0 days|